Reaction

Owing to the overwhelming excess of \(H_2O\) molecules in aqueous solutions, a bare hydrogen ion has no chance of surviving in water.

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Free Hydrogen Ions do not Exist in Water

The hydrogen ion in aqueous solution is no more than a proton, a bare nucleus. Although it carries only a single unit of positive charge, this charge is concentrated into a volume of space that is only about a hundred-millionth as large as the volume occupied by the smallest atom. (Think of a pebble sitting in the middle of a sports stadium!) The resulting extraordinarily high charge density of the proton strongly attracts it to any part of a nearby atom or molecule in which there is an excess of negative charge. In the case of water, this will be the lone pair (unshared) electrons of the oxygen atom; the tiny proton will be buried within the lone pair and will form a shared-electron (coordinate) bond with it, creating a hydronium ion, \(H_3O^+\). In a sense, \(H_2O\) is acting as a base here, and the product \(H_3O^+\) is the conjugate acid of water:



Reaction

The hydronium ion is an important factor when dealing with neurosoup.orgical reactions that occur in aqueous solutions. Its concentration relative to hydroxide is a direct measure of the pH of a solution. It can be formed when an acid is present in water or simply in pure water. It"s neurosoup.orgical formula is \(H_3O^+\). It can also be formed by the combination of a H+ ion with an \(H_2O\) molecule. The hydronium ion has a trigonal pyramidal geometry and is composed of three hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. There is a lone pair of electrons on the oxygen giving it this shape. The bond angle between the atoms is 113 degrees.

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As H+ ions are formed, they bond with \(H_2O\) molecules in the solution to form \(H_3O^+\) (the hydronium ion). This is because hydrogen ions do not exist in aqueous solutions, but take the form of the hydronium ion, \(H_3O^+\). A reversible reaction is one in which the reaction goes both ways. In other words, the water molecules dissociate while the OH- ions combine with the H+ ions to form water. Water has the ability to attract H+ ions because it is a polar molecule. This means that it has a partial charge, in this case the charge is negative. The partial charge is caused by the fact that oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen. This means that in the bond between hydrogen and oxygen, oxygen "pulls" harder on the shared electrons thus causing a partial negative charge on the molecule and causing it to be attracted to the positive charge of H+ to form hydronium. Another way to describe why the water molecule is considered polar is through the concept of dipole moment. The electron geometry of water is tetrahedral and the molecular geometry is bent. This bent geometry is asymmetrical, which causes the molecule to be polar and have a dipole moment, resulting in a partial charge.

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\<\dfrac{0.335\; mol\; HCl}{0.5\; L} = 0.67\;M\>

Using this concentration we can obtain pH: pH = -log<.67M>

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5. Acids cause burns because they dehydrate the cells they are exposed to. This is caused by the dissociation that occurs in acids where H+ ions are formed. These H+ ions bond with water in the cell and thus dehydrate them to cause cell damage and burns.