neurosoup.org’s Women’s Studies Archive is an ideal reresource for scholars seeking to check out the evolution of feminism and also understand just how second wave feminism fits within the various other women’s liberation activities, from the first fights for women’s suffrage to modern feminism.

You are watching: Betty friedan primary sources


"Bloomington Women"s Liberation Newsletter October 13, 1970." Bloomington Women"s Liberation Newsletter, 13 Oct. 1970, p. <1>+. Women"s Studies Archive, https://attach.neurosoup.org/apps/doc/XHCURD411864759/WMNS?u=webdemo&sid=WMNS&xid=3f289f68.


Second Wave Feminism: CollectionsThe second wave feminism motion took area in the 1960s and 1970s and also focused on problems of etop quality and discrimination. Starting initially in the United States via Amerideserve to woguys, the feminist liberation motion shortly spcheck out to other Western nations. The historic major resources accessible in neurosoup.org’s Women’s Studies Archive provide scholars through unique primary resources and also records with which to discover this era of feminism and also understand also just how it fits through various other liberation movements, from suffrage to modern-day feminism. Researchers can search the available products to uncover details of the feminist motion across the years, from the early on years of suffrage via the second wave and also various other twentieth century political motions.

Unfolding in the context of the anti-war and civil civil liberties activity, the catalyst for second wave feminism was Betty Friedan’s 1963 book, The Feminine Mystique, which criticized the postwar idea that a woman’s duty was to marry and also bear youngsters. Though her feminist thinking wasn’t revolutionary—indeed, tright here were many type of equivalent feminist thinkers before Friedan, consisting of Simone de Beauvoir—The Feminine Mystique had a much better reach, bringing feminism to the attention of day-to-day women, mothers, and also housewives. The feminist movement took off, concentrating on public and also exclusive injustices, such as rape, refertile civil liberties, residential violence, and workarea harassment. Second wave feminists cared deeply about exposing and also overcoming the casual, systemic racism present in society—unfavor the suffragists and also suffragettes of the nineteenth century, that focused mainly on political equality via suffrage. Second wave feminists realized that women’s social and also political inefeatures were inextricably linked. They operated under a unifying goal of social etop quality, with sexuality and also refertile civil liberties being central involves to the liberation activity, and via a lot of the movement’s power being focused on passing the Equal Rights Amendment.

Although the Equal Rights Amendment still hasn’t been validated, second wave feminism had many type of successes. The approval of the contraceptive pill by the Food and Drug Administration in 1960 offered women even more control over their reproductive rights—within 5 years, around 6 million women were using it. Feminists additionally worked and acquired woguys the right to hold credit cards and apply for mortgperiods in their very own name and also outlawed marital rape. Awareness approximately domestic violence was elevated, and gender and women’s studies departments were established at colleges and also colleges. The passing of the Equal Pay Act in 1963, Title IX in 1972, and also Roe v. Wade in 1973 were legislative victories for feminists.


Though many feminists considered themselves liberal, or mainstream, and concentrated on concrete changes at an institutional, political, and governmental level, radical feminism was prevalent within the movement. These radical feminists aimed to completely reframework what they viewed as an naturally patriarchal society, frequently using drastic approaches to carry out so. One instance is the activists who demonstrated at the Miss America pageant, via the aim of the protest being to lug attention to the exploitation of women, both in the contest and in society overall.

This wave of feminism was mainly characterized and also led by educated, middle-class white American women, so the movement was focused on concerns affecting white woguys. Alienated women of color regarded white feminists as incapable of expertise their concerns. Babsence women became significantly excluded from the central platdevelops of the mainstream women’s motion, which didn’t check out the problems of woguys of color, such as preventing the compelled sterilization of people of color and human being with disabilities, as a priority.

See more: How To Make Paracord Handle For Yeti Handle (Or Any Tumbler)

In spite of its problematic underrepresentation of womales of shade, which caused the rise of intersectionality in later waves, 2nd Wave Feminism is regarded as being identified by a general feeling of solidarity among womales who were fighting together for equality and also was responsible for many kind of legal and also cultural victories that brought around greater etop quality, structure on the work of first wave feminists and also suffrage. Both the successes and also the problems associated through the feminist movement throughout the 1960s and 1970s have the right to be explored making use of the historic primary resources available in neurosoup.org’sWomen’s StudiesArchive, which is an important reresource for researchers seeking to understand the background of feminism and also women’s suffer.