The term ayahuasca is sometimes loosely used to mean any combination of an MAOI with DMT. Although, traditionally it is made from the Banisteriopsis caapi vine and other admixtures such as Psychotria viridis.

Although alkaloid content varies across batches and specific recipes, one study reported that an average 100-mL dose of ayahuasca contained 24 mg of DMT, 107 mg of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroharmine, 20 mg of harmaline, and 170 mg of harmine (Callaway et al., 1996). The beta-carboline MAOI contained in Banisteriopsis caapi range from 0.05% to 1.95% by dry weight and the DMT in Psychotria viridis ranges from 0.1% to 0.66% by dry weight (Rivier & Lindgren, 1972; McKenna et al., 1984).

Upon initial ingestion, effects can begin to be felt between 20 and 60 minutes. The duration of the trip lasts from 2-6 hours of peak effects with 1-8 hours of lingering after-effects, depending on dosage and the individual user.



When ingested orally, MAOIs inhibit the catabolism of dietary amines. Sufficient intestinal MAO-A inhibition can lead to hypertensive crisis, when foods containing tyramine are consumed (so-called "cheese syndrome"), or hyperserotonemia if foods containing tryptophan are consumed. The amount required to cause a reaction exhibits great individual variation and depends on the degree of inhibition, which in turn depends on dosage and selectivity.

The exact mechanism by which tyramine causes a hypertensive reaction is not well understood, but it is assumed that tyramine displaces norepinephrine from the storage vesicles. This may trigger a cascade in which excessive amounts of norepinephrine can lead to a hypertensive crisis. Another theory suggests that proliferation and accumulation of catecholamines causes hypertensive crises.

Foods to Avoid with MAOIs

Drugs to Avoid with MAOIs



Ayahuasca Cookbook

Ayahuasca Preparation



Ayahuasca, Pharmahuasca, and Ayahuasca Analogs



Three Beta-Carboline Containing Plants as Potentiators of Synthetic DMT and Other Indole Psychedelics

Risk assessment of ritual use of oral dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmala alkaloids

Hallucinogens and dissociative agents naturally growing in the United States

Ayahuasca: An Ethnopharmacologic History

The Scientific Investigation of Ayahuasca: A Review of Past and Current Research

Human Psychopharmacology of Hoasca: a plant hallucinogen used in ritual context in Brazil

Pharmacokinetics of Hoasca alkaloids in healthy humans

Human Pharmacology of Ayahuasca: Subjective and Cardiovascular Effects, Monoamine Metabolite Excretion, and Pharmacokinetics

Effects of ayahuasca on sensory and sensorimotor gating in humans as measured by P50 suppression and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex, respectively

The Concept of Plants as Teachers among four Mestizo Shamans of Iquitos, Northeastern Perú

Hallucinogens and dissociative agents naturally growing in the United States

“Ayahuasca,” the South American hallucinogenic drink: An ethnobotanical and chemical investigation




The NeuroSoup Trip Guide - The free e-book version of The Neurosoup Trip Guide is now available online. It contains chapters on Choosing the Right Hallucinogen; Set, Setting, and Preparation for a Trip; Tips for Tripsitters; Aspects of the Entheogenic Experience; Working with Difficult Experiences; Integration; and References and Recommended Reading.

Pharmacotheon - Written by Jonathan Ott. Free e-book hosted by Scribd.


MAOI Sources

DMT Sources



Banisteriopsis caapi





Ayahuasca Analogs:

Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala/MAOI-A)

Passion flower (Mild)






Moclobemide (MAOI-A)



Psychotria viridis (Chakruna)

Diplopterys cabrerana (Chaliponga, Banisteriopsis rusbyana)

Psychotria carthagensis (Amyruca)



Ayahuasca Analogs:

Mimosa Hostilis

Anadenanthera peregrina

Acacia maidenii (Maiden's Wattle)

Full List...






More Info:

Trip Reports

Recommended Reading