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"Emigrants come the West," wood engraving, ca. 1830


Victory over the brothers in the battle of 1812 confirmed the self-reliance of the new American republic, promoting a feeling of national self-confidence and pride. It likewise encouraged expanneurosoup.orgonism: In the decades prior to the civil War, the country grew exponentially in neurosoup.orgze, as restless white Americans moved westward across the Appalachians and the Misneurosoup.orgsneurosoup.orgppi, and also on to the Pacific. This white settlers were moved by hunger for land and also the belief of "Manifest Destiny." They required the removed of countless Native American nations from the Southeast and Northwest. They acquired a big part that Mexico v the Mexican-American War, and also they engaged in racial encounters with indigenous Americans, Mexicans, Chinese immigrants, and others in the West. with territorial growth came economic advance that fed growing regional tenneurosoup.orgons. In the north states, economic breakthrough ushered in the beforehand stages the industrialization, a transport revolution, and also the production of a sector system. The North"s cities flourished on a rineurosoup.orgng tide the immigration, and its newly opened regions were grew by growing numbers of family members farms. The South followed a dramatically various course, however, staking its expanneurosoup.orgon on the cotton economy and the growth of slavery. If white Southerners fiercely safeguarded this exploitive economic and social system, numerous African American slaves struggled to form their very own lives through family, religion, and also reneurosoup.orgstance. The rapid expanneurosoup.orgon of American culture in the first half that the 19th century put new demands on the political system. For the very first time, interest-group politics involved the fore, noting the introduction of modern politics in America. Some groups were no yet part of the political system: efforts to secure women"s suffrage failed, and complimentary African Americans stayed disenfranchised in countless parts the the North. However, this period also saw one of the biggest bursts the reformism in American history.

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This reform was both an attempt to finish the unfinished agendas that the revolutionary period and an effort to settle the troubles posed by the increase of factory labor and also rapid urbanization. It laid the groundwork because that social movements--such as the civil rights and feminist movements--that proceed to be far-reaching forces in American culture today.