How to Lie v Statistics was composed in 1954 however is even more relevant today than it was at the time of writing. As such it is truly ‘anti-fragile’. This publication is an excellent for anyone that wants a refresher ~ above the most typical statistical shenanigans that room all approximately us.

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The most vital lesson come take away from the book is to constantly go to the resource material as soon as you’re presented v facts & opinions. Together such, while this an introduction will hopefully whet her appetite, there is no substitute for the genuine thing. Constantly go to the source material!

Chapter 1: The Sample with integrated Bias

Almost every sample has actually a bias that you must be aware of in stimulate to attract accurate conclusions. Those that current conclusions of research studies will likely not be forthcoming about those biases because they want to press their very own agenda:

Chapter 2: The Well-Chosen Average

The average of what?Who/what’s included?Is the ‘average’ the mean, median, or the mode?

Chapter 3: The little Figures That are Not There

Always inspect for the visibility of:

Sample size,p-value,Range,Quartiles,Standard error,Standard deviation, etc.

If these figures aren’t detailed in an write-up (they probably won’t be), then walk to the resource material and look for them there. Castle tell girlfriend incredibly helpful things around the basic data that will assist inform your own conclusions about a study.

Remember the prestige of standard error and always keep the ‘plus-or-minus’ in mind…

Chapter 5: The Gee-Whiz Graph

The author of a graph is probably misleading you v the axis.

Chapter 7: The Semiattached Figure

Absolute changes are somewhat meaningless without ascertaining what is the percentage increase or decrease.

Always inquiry if one an outcome is being offered to infer miscellaneous else that doesn’t necessarily follow.

Chapter 8: short article Hoc Rides Again

Correlation does not imply causation…!!

Chapter 9: just how to Statisticulate

Never take a statistic at face value – everyone has actually a bias, so walk to the resource material.

Chapter 10: how to Talk earlier to a Statistic