Although dairy choices like nut, soy, and also even pea milk have actually been farming in popularity over the past couple of years, milk (from cows!—remember those?) has actually been a staple of American diets for centuries. But similar to many of the new essentials us shop for, the decisions we make when it comes to buying this seemingly simple product room becoming more and more complex every day. The inquiries we"re challenged with once walking past the dairy products cooler space now much heavier 보다 choosing in between regular or chocolate-flavored: Pasteurized, homogenized, whole, or fat-free? What even is life milk anyway? and wait—what about organic?

To do your an option a tiny bit easier, here"s a basic guide to understanding milk terminology and some things to save in mind before you buy:


genuine milk! native a cow! picture by James Ransom

Milk Fat

Let"s begin off easy: among the very first things you an alert in the refrigerated aisle is that milk cartons are labeled with their percent values. This numbers indicate just how much fat is in the milk by weight. The most common varieties sold in the united state are whole milk, 2% (reduced-fat), 1% (low-fat), and also skim (fat-free) milk. Whole milk consists of 3.5% milk fat, making it most similar to how milk occurs naturally, while fat-free milk includes no much more than 0.2% milk fat.

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put simply, pasteurization is the procedure of heating milk to damage potentially disease-causing bacteria and also increase milk"s shelf life. Many milk is heated an extremely quickly (to at the very least 161.6° F) for simply a few seconds, i beg your pardon is known as High-temperature Short-Time (HTST), however other varieties of pasteurization exist to manipulate milk for various purposes.

Milk pasteurized at smaller dairies or in residences usually undergoes a low-temp pasteurization (heated come 145° F because that at the very least 30 minutes) to create a minimally handle product intended for fast consumption. There’s also something known as Ultra-Heat treatment (UHT), or "ultra-pasteurization," whereby milk is heated come 280° F for a just a couple seconds. This technique is what"s provided to produce that "shelf-stable" milk you"ll find unrefrigerated, as it creates a shelf-life the 6 come 9 month if the aseptic cardboard containers its marketed in room left unopened—but numerous milks, not simply the shelf-stable ones, are ultra-pasteurized.



Homogenization is a completely separate procedure than pasteurization, so you deserve to have pasteurized milk the hasn’t to be homogenized and vice versa. Homogenized milk is any type of milk "that has actually been mechanically cure to ensure the it has actually a smooth, even consistency".

“I currently live next to a ar who has actually three cows and also sells us 2 gallons of raw milk a week. That is fabulous. Anyone who has actually not tasted raw milk need to note that the taste difference is profound. While pasteurization has its place, the procedure definitely changes the taste of any kind of product for the worse.”

When milk is left un-homogenized, the fats eventually rise come the top and create a great of cream (hence the phrase "only the cream rises to the top"). Homogenization transforms this through heating and vigorously pounding the milk with tiny holes to malfunction fat molecules, allowing them to continue to be suspended in the rest of the liquid and also resist separation.

Big dairy producers donate homogenization due to the fact that it permits them to produce a uniform product native the milk of numerous different herds that cows, renders it easier to filter the milk into the different fat percentages (whole, 2%, and also skim), and leads to a longer all at once shelf life. While the process does no involve additive or chemistry treatments, homogenization is occasionally criticized for altering the means our bodies absorb milk fat (though there space no legitimate clinical findings to assistance these claims).


Cookies through their smooth, homogenized, partner in crime. Picture by note Weinberg

Raw Milk

Raw milk is milk as you get straight from one animal; it has not to be pasteurized, homogenized, or otherwise transformed in any kind of way. The conversation approximately whether raw milk is for sure for human intake is possibly the most fraught question facing milk consumers. Both the united state Food and also Drug administration (FDA) and the Centers for disease Control and also Prevention (CDC) warn that drinking raw milk can lead to serious health risks. According to the FDA, unpasteurized milk can bring bacteria that causes multiple foodborne illnesses, in enhancement to wellness complications as excessive as kidney failure, additional claiming that children, expectant mothers, and the yonsei are particularly susceptible to being affected. This is why pasteurization was created in the an initial place: to get rid of the maybe harmful bacteria discovered in life milk.

But life milk supporters continually song its praises. Those in favor of the stuff insurance claim that it helps develop up disease-fighting immunities and lessen allergies, and that the procedure of pasteurization additionally kills "good" bacteria, enzymes, and also nutrients the cannot make it through the heater process. There has actually yet to be any type of sound medical proof to assistance these theories.

Even legislator can"t seem come agree. Says make your own laws when it involves the regulation of raw milk sales, v seven says outlawing its sale straight to consumers as the October of critical year. Because it is potentially dangerous, federal legislation prohibits the circulation of the raw milk throughout state lines unless it is in transit to it is in pasteurized or used to make aged cheese.


Does Milk save Antibiotics?

Absolutely zero milk produced and purchased in the US includes antibiotics. When I spoke to rick Osofsky, owner and also farmer that Ronnybrook farm & dairy products in upstate NY, he told me that "milk is the solitary most regulated product in the us today" (there are definitely a most regulatory actions involved), and also because of this, milk is rigorously and continuously tested—from the moment milk is picked up native the farm till the final product is dropped at the store—to ensure the is completely antibiotic-free. (And cows who are provided antibiotics as soon as sick aren"t milked again till the antibiotics are totally out of your systems.)

Whether her milk has hormones, however, is a different story. Some dairy farmers select to provide their cows rBST, a fabricated version the a naturally occurring bovine hormone, come up milk production. Milk made through rBST is virtually the same to untreated milk, for this reason farmers space not compelled by law to brand whether or not their cows are treated. That being said, many producers who perform not treat their cows incorporate "rBST-free" top top their label as some folks worry around the possible link between these hormones and also some cancers (especially since they room outlawed in Canada and also Europe).


so if all milk in this country must comply come such strict regulations and also none the it includes antibiotics, why isn"t it all organic? Good question.

The organic label comes under to even if it is or no the cows space fed an all-organic diet on farms that use just organic fertilizers and organic pesticides. The nutrient content of necessary milk is specifically the very same as typical milk and does not market any added health benefits. rick told me the most farms (like his) simply can"t purchased to preserve an essential diet or use all necessary fertilizers together they are characterized by law.

He also explained that since the term "organic" has actually now end up being such a touchstone in well-known culture, consumers have to be all the much more knowledgable around where their milk comes from. (Many essential brands are owned by larger food companies that might not be together committed to the organic viewpoint as the smaller brand is.)

Whether you room partial to pasteurization or reach for raw milk , the most necessary thing to take into factor to consider is wherein your milk comes from, ensuring humane pet treatment, and also thoughtful soil stewardship.

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stack recommends visiting your local dairy farm, if at all possible, and also buying straight from the source.

What"s her milk preference? use the comments to let us know which gallons you choose up regularly and also what friend think around raw milk!