“As numerous languages you know, as countless times you space a human being” – Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
The importance of languages and the interaction in various languages has actually increased drastically in the XXI century, as result of globalization and companies starting to run in different markets worldwide. Nowadays, we space able to communicate effectively with world from other nations by utilizing English or even other languages. Yet sometimes we meet difficulties to properly recognize each other, simply since of different definitions in our aboriginal language. So, exactly how does language form the method we check out the world?
The etymological area obtained revolutionized through Edward Sapir and also Benjamin Lee Whorf through the advent of the theory of linguistic relativism. Based on a comparative examine of the American Indian language native the tribe Hopi and Indo-European languages, numerous differences between them to be noticed. Because that instance, Whorf concluded the Europeans acknowledge the human being as a “set of things”, when in Hopi language the world is a “collection the actions”. More so, categories such together “time” and “space” are not transcultural, yet are component of our grammar. Thus, according to the Sapir-Whorf-theory, language is more than just a communication tool – it determines our late of reality and also influences ours behavior.
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TIMEIt might seem that the idea of “time” for every is the same yet it transforms out the it’s no that simple. Research carried out in the 70s verified that civilization who speak a distinct language also perceived time differently: because that the brothers “time” is linearly, moving from “left” come “right”. Chinese civilization have the idea the time in regards to “over” and “under”. In the case of the Greeks, size plays a far-ranging role and time have the right to be “large” or “small”.Furthermore, Keith Chen – skilled of behavior economics – do an amazing discovery. He claims that depending upon what language us use, we have a different method to financial and economic issues. Languages prefer English, Spanish or Portuguese show a certain time and distinguish in between past, present and future in their grammar, if languages there is no time, favor the Chinese, use the very same phrases to explain the action at various times. Chen argues, human being who speak in “timeless languages” are an ext likely to conserve more. That is simple, once we talk around the future, we space thinking about something further and with much more distant, so we space less encouraged to save money now.
SPACEEvidence of the language influence on human being thinking is the language the space. In English, we have actually the expressions of “left” and “right” to define the orientation of the world approximately us. However, in some languages, geography directions room used. During a research exploration to Australia, Professor Lera Boroditsky hit upon the people Pormpuraawans. Your language go not describe objects as appropriate or left, but much more as the “north-east” and “south-western”. Boroditsky noticed, the these people, thanks to that kind of language training, have a high sense of orientation and instinctively recognize where to go without acquiring lost even in a totally unfamiliar place.
COLORSThe distinction of shade is additionally not for this reason obvious. In English and also German, blue and also green room two different colors, but in Japanese language, these colors are thought about as shades of the very same color. In 1954, researcher Lenberg and also Brown carried out an experiment on American, German and also Japanese students and asked them come distinguish between different colors. It turned out that the Japanese regularly made mistakes when differentiating between the color of blue and green, when the Germans and also the Americans succeeded flawlessly. The test showed that the outcomes strongly depends on whether these colors have actually the very same or different names in every language.
OBJECTSAnother example are “articles”. Language such together French, German, Spanish, and Russian not just assign masculinity or femininity to topics but likewise a whole selection of inanimate objects. In the recent years, miscellaneous experiments have displayed that grammar posts can shape the different feelings and also associations come the specific object in different languages. In a study, German and Spanish speakers were asked to describe how castle see various objects, prefer a bridge or a key. German speakers associated a leg with usual “feminine” adjectives prefer “pretty, elegant, peaceful, slender”. In comparison to that, the bulk of the Spanish speakers used common “male” adjectives to explain a bridge choose “tall, long, powerful”. The factor for these different results might be the contrary grammatical gender the word has in both languages: The German indigenous “die Brücke” is grammatically feminine and also the Spanish indigenous “el puente” is masculine.
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