Secession
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The act by which states removed themselves from the union; South Carolina was the first to do so.

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Confederate States of AmericaThis was the new country formed by the seceded states South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.
Crittenden CompromiseThis failed compromise offered permanent slavery in the south, enforced the fugitive slave laws, and restricted the slave trade from entering DC. Republicans fought it due to a fear of the expansion of slavery.
Fort SumterThis was the location of the first battle of the civil war. The fort was under siege when they sent for supplies, and the Confederates attacked. It was surrendered after two days.
Homestead ActThis act was passed in 1862, and gave 160 acres to citizens. They were also given the right to purchase it after living there for five years.
Morrill Land Grant ActThis act gave the right to public lands to states, with the instruction to sell it and put money towards education.
National Banks ActThis act gave banks the right to join the national chain and issue US Treasury notes.
Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroad CompaniesThese companies were federally chartered by congress to create the transcontinental railroad.
GreenbacksThis money was printed to raise Union funds, but it was controversial due to not being backed by gold or silver, and therefore much more unstable.
National Draft LawIn 1863, after volunteers stopped arriving frequently for the army, Congress passed this law to gain more soldiers.
New York City draft riotsThese occurred after the first draft name draw in New York City. Common people were furious that the rich could hire others to go to war in their place.
Habeas CorpusThe right to a speedy trial. Lincoln withheld this right from many union citizens who spoke out against the war.
Ex parte MilliganThis ruling by the Supreme Court in 1866 decided that military trials held in areas with civilian courts were unconstitutional.
CopperheadsDemocrats who opposed the war, as well as the draft law.
election of 1864This election was between Lincoln and McClellan in the middle of the war. Union victories gave people the confidence to vote Lincoln for a second term.
Confiscation ActsThese acts freed slaves from members of the confederacy and their supporters, as well as removing slaves from DC and compensating their owners.
Emancipation ProclamationThis document was signed by Lincoln July 1 1863, and declared that all slaves in the Confederacy were free in the eyes of the Union.
US Sanitary CommissionThis group, led by Dorothea Dix, worked to get more female nurses onto the battlefield.
Confederate Conscription ActThis act, made in 1862, required that all Confederate men aged 18-35 put in three years of service in the army. It received great opposition, and was repealed 1863.
General George McClellanThis man was Lincoln's second general and would later become his competitor in the election. He displayed an inadequate grasp of war strategy, and left the position in 1861.
General Ulysses S GrantThis man became Lincoln's general in 1864. He and Lincoln shared similar views on strategy, so the president gave him free reign for the rest of the war.
General Robert E LeeThis man became Davis' general in 1862. Davis himself preferred to control strategy, leaving the general to directly command troops on the battlefield.
IroncladsThese ships, first introduced by the Confederacy, were former US frigates plated with iron. The Union was quick to copy the design, thus halting Confederacy plans.
King Cotton diplomacyDuring the war, the Confederacy tried to keep its ties to Britain and France, both who disagreed with slavery. The Confederacy argued that its cotton was vital to them, but Britain had surplus cotton and was willing to temporarily break ties with the Confederacy.
repeating weaponsThese were first introduced in the Civil War. The pistol was patented by Samuel Colt, and the rifle by Oliver Winchester.
AntietamThis battle held in September, 1862, was the bloodiest single day of the war. Despite heavy losses, it was also a Union strategic victory.
GettysburgThis battle, held in July, 1863, was the final Confederate offensive.
William T ShermanThis Union officer led the March to the Sea, in which he and his army pushed throughout Georgia and destroyed everything in their wake.
March to the SeaThe march of Union soldiers through Georgia. They destroyed both military and civilian property along the way, with the aim to break the will of southerners.
Appomattox CourthouseOn April 9th, 1865, the leaders of the Union and Confederate armies met here to officially end the war.
Abraham Lincoln16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Clara BartonLaunched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
Bull Run1st real battle, Confederate victory, Washingtonian spectators gather to watch battle, Gen. Jackson stands as Stonewall and turns tide of battle in favor of Confederates, realization that war is not going to be quick and easy for either side.
Jefferson DavisAn American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865.
Robert E. LeeConfederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force.
ShilohThis was battle fought by Grant in an attempt to capture the railroad of the South. The battle was fought in the west prevented the north from obtaining an easy victory. However, the Confederates strong resistance showed that they would not go quietly and the war was far from over.
Thomas (Stonewall) Jacksonhe was a confederate general who was known for his fearlessness in leading rapid marches bold flanking movements and furious assaults. he earned his nickname at the battle of first bull run for standing courageously against union fire. During the battle of Chancellorsville his own men accidentally mortally wounded him.
U.S. Sanitary CommissionOrganization developed to provide medical supplies and assistance to Union armies in the field.
VicksburgGrant besieged the city from May 18 to July 4, 1863, until it surrendered, yielding command of the Mississippi River to the Union.

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Fifty-fourth Massachusettsan infantry regiment that saw extensive service in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The regiment was one of the first official African-American units in the United States during the Civil War.
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