Suffixes are important elements of the English language. They are provided to make new words and give basic words different meanings. There space vowel suffixes and also consonant suffixes. Collection suffixes include endings such together -ed, -er, -es, -end, and -ing. Consonant suffixes encompass endings such together -s, -less, -ness, -ment, and also -ly. Including suffixes come words can be tricky come learn and master, however learning six straightforward suffix spelling rules will assist you know exactly how to use suffixes correctly. Save in mind the there are some exception to every of the suffix rules.
You are watching: When adding a suffix that begins with a consonant, the general rule is to
Rule 1: twin the Consonant
Adding suffixes to some base native that finish with a consonant needs doubling the last letter, yet only in details situations.
Short Vowel and One Consonant
When a word ends in a short vowel sound complied with by a single consonant, the last letter of words will should be doubled before the suffix is added.fat + -er = Fatterflip + -ed = flippedmud + -y = muddyshop + -ed = shoppedswim + -ing = swimming
Multiple Syllables and L in ~ the End
When a native has much more than one syllable and also ends with the letter "l," girlfriend will require to dual the "l" when adding the suffix.cancel + -ed = cancelledcontrol + -ed = controlledpropel + -er = propellercompel + -ing = compellingfulfil + -ment = fulfillment
Exceptions come the doubling Rule
The doubling dominance does not apply to indigenous that end in "w," "x" or "y."
Rule 2: drop the quiet E
The dominion for dropping the final silent "e" in a native is based on whether the first letter the the suffix is a vowel or consonant.
Silent E and also Vowel Suffix
When a word ends in a silent letter "e" and you are including a suffix that begins with a vowel, climate drop the final "e."drive + -ing = drivinghope + -ing = hopingmake + -er = makeradore + -able = adorableuse + -er = user
Silent E Exception
There are a couple of words that fulfill the criteria because that dropping the silent "e" with a collection suffix, however with i m sorry the "e" has to be kept.like + -able = likeablesize + -able = sizeable
Rule 3: keep the last E
There room a couple of situations in i beg your pardon the final "e" stays with a native when including a suffix.
Base Words finishing in CG or GE
When the basic word ends in the letter "ce" or "ge" and the suffix starts with the letters "a" or "o," the final "e" have to stay.advantage + -ous = advantageouschange + -able = changeablecourage + -ous = courageousservice + -able = serviceablenotice + -able = noticeable
Base Words finishing in EE or YE
You will additionally need to save the "e" at the end of words if it end in "ee" or "ye."agree + -ing = agreeingdecree + -ing = decreeingeye + -ing = eyeingforesee + -ing = foreseeingsee + -ing = seeing
Adding the Suffix -ly
Remember to store the "e" if making use of the suffix -ly.late + -ly = latelyrare + -ly = rarelylove + -ly = lovelyhome + -ly = homelydefinite + -ly = definitely
Adding the Suffix -ful
When you add the suffix -ful come a word that ends v an "e," keep the "e."care + -ful = carefuluse + -ful = usefulpeace + -ful = peaceful
Rule 4: store the Y
There room a few scenarios that require keeping the "y" in ~ the finish of a word when adding a suffix.
Base Words ending in a vowel Then Y
When a indigenous ends through "y" and has a vowel prior to the "y," then keep the "y" when adding a suffix.enjoy + -ed = enjoyedplay + -ing = playingbuy + -er = buyerjoy + -ful = joyful
Adding a Suffix the Starts with I
Another time to save the "y" is if the suffix starts through the letter "i." Remember the a indigenous cannot have actually two i"s in a row.worry + -ing = worryingcopy + -ing = copyingcarry + -ing = carryingsupply + -ing = supplyingmarry + -ing = marrying
Rule 5: adjust the Y come an I
There room times the the "y" at the finish of the word needs to be readjusted to an "i" in stimulate to include a suffix.
Base Words finishing With a Consonant then Y
When the word has actually a consonant prior to the "y" in ~ the end, girlfriend will need to change the "y" come "i" before including the suffix.beauty + -ful = beautifulduty + -ful = dutifulhappy + -ness = happiness
Exceptions come the Y to ns Rule
Not surprisingly, there space some exception to this rule.dry + -er = dryerbaby + -hood = babyhoodlady + -ship = ladyship
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Rule 6: readjust IE come Y
When a word end in "ie," readjust the ending to "y" when you add the suffix -ing.die + -ing = dyingtie + -ing = tyinguntie + -ing = untyinglie + -ing = lyingvie + -ing = vying
Expand her Vocabulary
It may seem hard to grasp these suffix rules in ~ first. Over there is a lot come remember, however the initiative is worth it. Understanding the suffix rules will open up her vocabulary to limitless expressions of thoughts and emotions. As soon as you recognize the suffix assignment rules, the language possibilities space endless. After ~ you acquire comfortable v suffixes, focus your attention on exactly how to use prefixes. Then, reinforce her knowledge and build your an abilities with real exercise using base words, prefixes and also suffixes.