You are watching: Which most contributed to the battle of stalingrad becoming a turning point in the war?
Corrections? Updates? Omissions? allow us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login).
Feedback share a form (Required)Factual CorrectionSpelling/Grammar repair CorrectionAdditional InformationOther
Our editors will evaluation what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.Join neurosoup.org"s Publishing partner Program and our neighborhood of specialists to acquire a worldwide audience for her work!
Date:August 22, 1942 - February 2, 1943 ...(Show more)Location:RussiaVolga RiverVolgograd...(Show more)Participants:GermanySoviet Union...(Show more)Context:World battle IIEastern FrontThe Motherland Calls...(Show more)Key People:Fedor von BockVasily ChuikovErich von MansteinNicholasFriedrich Paulus...(Show more)
The fight of Stalingrad to be won by the Soviet Union against a German offensive that check to take it the city the Stalingrad (now Volgograd, Russia) during world War II. Although German forces led a strong attack right into Soviet territory, a strategy counteroffensive through Soviet forces flanked and also surrounded a huge body that German troops, at some point forcing them to surrender.
The battle of Stalingrad is considered to be among the biggest battles of world War II. It significant a transforming point in the war and significantly weakened Germany’s armed forces forces.
The transforming point that the battle of Stalingrad was a Soviet counteroffensive named Operation Uranus. It targeted the weak Axis forces defending the flanks that the German armies trying to take the city. The Soviets surrounding the German sixth Army, i beg your pardon surrendered (against the assignment of Adolf Hitler) on January 31, 1943.
Axis casualties throughout the fight of Stalingrad are estimated to have actually been about 800,000, including those absent or captured. Soviet pressures are estimated to have actually suffered 1,100,000 casualties, and approximately 40,000 civilians died. The battle of Stalingrad was one of the deadliest battles in civilization War II.
Learn around the fight of Stalingrad (1942–43) a brutal military campaign in between Russia and also Germany during civilization War II
Battle the Stalingrad, (July 17, 1942–February 2, 1943), successful Soviet defense the the city the Stalingrad (now Volgograd), Russia, U.S.S.R., during people War II. Russians take into consideration it to be one of the biggest battles that their great Patriotic War, and also most historians think about it to be the greatest battle of the whole conflict. It quit the German breakthrough into the Soviet Union and marked the transforming of the birds of war in favour of the Allies.
In the fight of Stalingrad (1942–43), the advancing Germans were finally stopped by the Red army in desperate house-to-house fighting. From The 2nd World War: allied Victory (1963), a documentary through Encyclopædia neurosoup.org education Corporation.
Stretching around 30 mile (50 km) follow me the financial institutions of the Volga River, Stalingrad to be a huge industrial city developing armaments and tractors and also was an essential prize in itself because that the invading German army. Catching the city would reduced Soviet transport web links with southerly Russia, and also Stalingrad would certainly then serve to anchor the north flank the the bigger German drive into the oil areas of the Caucasus. In addition, seizing the city the bore the name of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin would serve together a an excellent personal and propaganda win for Adolf Hitler. German war planners hope to accomplish that end with fall Blau (“Operation Blue”), a proposal that Hitler assessed and summarized in Führer Directive No. 41 ~ above April 5, 1942. Hitler’s goal to be to remove Soviet forces in the south, for sure the region’s financial resources, and then wheel his militaries either north to Moscow or south to conquer the remainder of the Caucasus. The offensive would certainly be undertaken by military Group south under ar Marshal Fedor von Bock. On June 28, 1942, operations started with far-reaching German victories.
On July 9 Hitler changed his original plan and also ordered the simultaneous record of both Stalingrad and the Caucasus. Military Group south was break-up into military Group A (under ar Marshal Wilhelm List) and also Army group B (under Bock). In ~ days, Bock was replaced at the head of army Group B by field Marshal Maximilian von Weichs. The division of forces placed tremendous press on an already-strained logistical assistance system. It also caused a gap in between the two forces, allowing Soviet pressures to to escape encirclement and also retreat to the east. As military Group A recorded Rostov-na-Donu, the penetrated deeply right into the Caucasus (Operation Edelweiss). Military Group B make slow development toward Stalingrad (Operation Fischreiher). Hitler intervened in the operation again and reassigned Gen. Hermann Hoth’s fourth Panzer military from army Group B to military Group A to assist in the Caucasus.
Stalin and also the Soviet high command responded to the summer offensive by creating the Stalingrad Front v the Sixty-second, Sixty-third, and Sixty-fourth Armies, under Marshal Semyon Timoshenko. The Eighth air Army and also Twenty-first army were additionally placed under his command. While the early Soviet an answer to loss Blau was to maintain an orderly withdrawal and thus protect against the massive encirclements and also troop losses the had characterized the early on months of procedure Barbarossa, ~ above July 28 Stalin issued stimulate No. 227, decreeing the the defenders at Stalingrad would take “Not One action Back.” He likewise refused the evacuation of any type of civilians, stating the the military would hit harder learning that they were defending citizens of the city.
For his part, Hitler ongoing to directly intervene in ~ the operational level, and in august he bespeak Hoth to rotate around and also head toward Stalingrad from the south. Through the end of August, the fourth Army’s northeastward development against the city was converging through the eastward development of the sixth Army, under Gen. Friedrich Paulus, through 330,000 of the German army’s best troops. The Red Army, however, placed up a established resistance, yielding floor only very slowly and also at a high price to the Sixth army as that approached Stalingrad.
On respectable 23 a German spearhead penetrated the city’s northern suburbs, and the Luftwaffe rained incendiary bombs that destroyed most of the city’s wooden housing. The Soviet Sixty-second military was pushed ago into Stalingrad proper, where, under the command that Gen. Vasily I. Chuikov, that made a figured out stand. Meanwhile, the Germans’ concentration top top Stalingrad to be steadily draining make reservation from their flank cover, which was already strained by having to stretch so far—400 mile (650 km) on the left (north), as much as Voronezh, and also 400 mile again ~ above the appropriate (south), as far as the Terek River. Through mid-September the Germans had pushed the Soviet pressures in Stalingrad earlier until the latter occupied only a 9-mile- (15-km-) long strip the the city along the Volga, and that piece was just 2 or 3 mile (3 to 5 km) wide. The Soviets had to supply their troops through barge and boat across the Volga native the various other bank. At that point Stalingrad came to be the scene of some of the fiercest and most-concentrated fighting that the war; streets, blocks, and also individual buildings were combated over by many tiny units that troops and also often changed hands again and again. The city’s remaining structures were pounded into rubble by the unrelenting nearby combat. The most-critical minute came when on October 14 the Soviet defenders had their backs therefore close to the Volga the the few remaining it is provided crossings that the river come under German machine-gun fire. The Germans, however, were cultivation dispirited by heavy losses, fatigue, and the approach of winter.
The turning point the the fight came v a large Soviet counteroffensive, code-named procedure Uranus (November 19–23), which had been to plan by Generals Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, Aleksandr Mikhailovich Vasilevsky, and Nikolay Nikolayevich Voronov. The was introduced in two spearheads, part 50 miles (80 km) north and south of the German important whose tip was at Stalingrad. The counteroffensive utterly surprised the Germans, who assumed the Soviets i can not qualify of mounting together an attack. The operation was a “deep penetration” maneuver, attacking not the key German pressure at the forefront of the battle for Stalingrad—the 250,000 remaining guys of the 6th Army and Fourth Panzer Army, both formidable foes—but rather hitting the weaker flanks. Those flanks were vulnerably exposed top top the open up steppes neighboring the city and were weakly safeguarded by undermanned, undersupplied, overstretched, and undermotivated Romanian, Hungarian, and also Italian troops. The assaults quickly penetrated deep right into the flanks, and also by November 23 the 2 prongs the the strike had linked up at Kalach, about 60 mile (100 km) west that Stalingrad; the encirclement that the 2 German armies in Stalingrad was complete. The German high command urged Hitler to permit Paulus and his pressures to break out of the encirclement and rejoin the main German pressures west that the city, however Hitler would not contemplate a retreat native the Volga River and ordered Paulus to “stand and fight.” through winter setting in and food and medical provides dwindling, Paulus’s forces prospered weaker. Hitler asserted that the Sixth army would be provided by the Luftwaffe, however the wait convoys can deliver only a fraction of the essential supplies.
In mid-December Hitler ordered among the most-talented German commanders, field Marshal Erich von Manstein, to type a special military corps to rescue Paulus’s forces by fighting its method eastward (Operation Winter Tempest), yet Hitler refuse to permit Paulus fight his way westward in ~ the very same time in bespeak to attach up through Manstein. That fatal decision doomed Paulus’s forces, due to the fact that Manstein’s pressures then simply lacked the reserves necessary to break with the Soviet encirclement single-handedly. The Soviets then resumed the attack (Operation Saturn, begun on December 16) to shrink the bag of encircled Germans, to head off any kind of further relief efforts, and to collection the stage for the final capitulation that the Germans in Stalingrad. The Volga river was now frozen over solid, and Soviet forces and equipment were sent out over the ice cream at various points within the city. Hitler exhorted the trapped German pressures to fight to the death, going therefore far as to promote Paulus to ar marshal (and recall Paulus that no German officer of the rank had ever surrendered). With Soviet armies closing in as component of operation Ring (begun January 10, 1943), the case was hopeless. The Sixth army was surrounding by seven Soviet armies. ~ above January 31 Paulus disobeyed Hitler and agreed to offer himself up. Twenty-two generals surrendered with him, and also on February 2 the last of 91,000 frozen starving guys (all the was left the the Sixth and Fourth armies) surrendered to the Soviets.
See more: Video Games Appeal To The Male Fantasy Meme, Video Games Appeal To The Male Fantasy
The Soviets recovered 250,000 German and Romanian corpses in and around Stalingrad, and also total Axis casualties (Germans, Romanians, Italians, and Hungarians) are thought to have been much more than 800,000 dead, wounded, missing, or captured. The the 91,000 males who surrendered, only some 5,000–6,000 ever before returned to their homelands (the last of castle a complete decade after the end of the war in 1945); the rest died in Soviet prison and also labour camps. On the Soviet side, main Russian military historians estimate the there were 1,100,000 Red army dead, wounded, missing, or caught in the project to defend the city. An estimated 40,000 civilians died as well.