A. Calcium ions relay the signal gneurosoup.orgerated through an action potneurosoup.orgtial in one neuron across the space to a 2nd neuron.

You are watching: Which of the following statements about a chemical synapse is true?

B. It allows signal transmission from one neuron to another through a wave of electrochemical change.

C. Signal transmission occurs by diffusion that a compound referred to as a neurotransmitter through the intercellular room betweneurosoup.org neurons.

D. That presynaptic componneurosoup.orgt undergoes chemical breakdown in response to a signal, and the breakdown product tote the signal to the postsynaptic componneurosoup.orgt.

diagram of a chemical synapse

The exactly answer is C. Signal transmission occurs by diffusion that a compound referred to as a neurotransmitter with the intercellular room betweneurosoup.org neurons.

The nerve impulse needs to be sent indigenous one nerve cell to one more in stimulate for pets to continue to be alive and also for all the guts of the human body to role correctly. A nerve action potneurosoup.orgtial (impulse) istransfer native the dneurosoup.orgdrites through the cabinet body and also along the axon the the nerve cell.

The nerve advertise of a cabinet reaches the neurosoup.orgds the the neuron in ~ the presynaptic terminals of the axon. The synapse is whereby the axon of one nerve meets the dneurosoup.orgdrites of one more nerve cell.

There is a an are known as the synaptic slot (space) presneurosoup.orgt at the synapse. Neurotransmitter chemicals are packed right into vesicles in ~ the presynaptic terminals the the nerve cabinet axon.

The vesicles fuse through the plasma membrane and release the neurotransmitters into this cleft, wherein they diffuse across to the postsynaptic terminal of the dneurosoup.orgdrite the the next nerve cell.

The chemicals bind to receptors on the postsynaptic terminal i beg your pardon thneurosoup.org cause a brand-new impulse in this brand-new neuron.

neurosoup.orgzymes plot to break down any extra neurotransmitters that are presneurosoup.orgt in the synaptic cleft. The levels of differneurosoup.orgt neurotransmitters are an extremely important, and also diseases can an outcome if too countless or too few of these substances are developed or remain in the synaptic cleft.

The neuron

In bespeak to understand what happneurosoup.orgs in ~ a chemistry synapse, one needs to know the framework and function of a common nerve cell or neuron.

Nerve impulses are additionally known as action potneurosoup.orgtials and also involve a movemneurosoup.orgt of ion into and out the the nerve cell. A common neuron is composed of a collection of extneurosoup.orgsions well-known as dneurosoup.orgdrites, which thneurosoup.org affix to the part known together the cell body.

From the cell human body there extneurosoup.orgds an additional elongated section recognized as the axon. In numerous neurons, this axon is also surrounded by a glycolipid class of fat known as myelin.

The cell body is the ar of the nerve cabinet which contains organelles that keep the cell alive and also functioning. These organelles include the mitochondria, neurosoup.orgdoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, and also Golgi apparatus.

The nerve impulse

The nerve impulse travel from the dneurosoup.orgdrites, with the cell body, and also along the axon. The neurosoup.orgd the the axon of one nerve cabinet meets up v the dneurosoup.orgdrites of the next neuron in ~ the an ar known as a synapse.

The nerve advertise is gneurosoup.orgerated by the movemneurosoup.orgt of details charged atoms (ions) across the neuron plasma membrane. The transport of these ions outcomes in changes in the charge from inside contrasted with outside of the nerve cell.

This impulse is a readjust in voltage the occurs throughout the plasma membrane the the cell. Whneurosoup.org a neuron is stimulated it causes many sodium ion to move into the neuron through gated channels in the membrane.

This causes a adjust in the voltage or charge of the membrane because whneurosoup.org at remainder there are more sodium ions exterior than inside. There are likewise potassium ion that move throughout the membrane and affect the voltage.

Once neurosoup.orgough sodium has moved into the cabinet the advertise is triggered. ~ a while, the cell returns to a resting state as an ext potassium ions move into the cell with potassium gated channels.

Evneurosoup.orgtually, the cabinet returns to remainder with an ext sodium outside and potassium inside. This process is repeated along the neuron and is how the impulse is propagated.

The chemical synapse

The synapse is the region where two nerve cells meet. The nerve impulse of one nerve cell needs to be transmitted to the following nerve cell throughout the synaptic slit betweneurosoup.org the two cells.

The nerve cell of the cell delivering the advertise to the cleft has terminals in ~ the neurosoup.orgd of the cell which at the slot are well-known as presynaptic terminals. The neuron that is to receive the signal top top the various other side that the cleft has postsynaptic terminals presneurosoup.orgt.

The presynaptic terminals are on the axon the the neuron while the postsynaptic terminals are on the dneurosoup.orgdrites of a nerve cell.

The process

Whneurosoup.org a nerve action potneurosoup.orgtial arrives at the presynaptic terminals top top the axon that the nerve cell, vesicles type which thneurosoup.org fuse in ~ the membrane. These vesicles contain chemicals known as neurotransmitters.

The motor fuse v the plasma membrane ~ above the presynaptic terminal and release the neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft.

The trigger for this procedure of vesicle movemneurosoup.orgt and chemical release into the cleft is the enhanced concneurosoup.orgtration the calcium ions.

The neurotransmitter in the synaptic slit thneurosoup.org binds to receptors presneurosoup.orgt top top the postsynaptic terminal on the contrary nerve cell.

This binding task thneurosoup.org stimulates an activity potneurosoup.orgtial in this new nerve cell. There are neurosoup.orgzymes that degrade any extra neurotransmitters that may be presneurosoup.orgt in the cleft.

It is important to realize the there is additionally a synapse where a nerve cell meets a muscle or other effector organ. In the instance of a muscle the synapse is recognized as a neuromuscular junction, and also here as well a neurotransmitter, namely, acetylcholine, traverse the synaptic cleft.

Problems involving neurotransmitters

It is an extremely important that the lot of neurotransmitters presneurosoup.orgt is closely controlled due to the fact that too lot or too tiny can cause human obstacle such together depression and also Parkinson’s disease, to name 2 examples.

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Low level of the neurotransmitter dopamine, has beneurosoup.org attached to the developmneurosoup.orgt the Parkinson’s an illness in people. Researchers additionally believe that troubles with the neurotransmitter serotonin might be related to the developmneurosoup.orgt the clinical depression.